Calpa: A Tool for Automating Selective Dynamic Compilation
In the proceedings of the
33rd Annual ACM
Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-33) ,
December 2000, pp. 291-202.
Selective dynamic compilation systems, typically driven by annotations that identify run-time constants, can achieve significant program speedups. However, manually inserting annotations is a tedious and time-consuming process that requires careful inspection of a program's static characteristics and run-time behavior and much trial and error in order to select the most beneficial annotations. Calpa is a system that generates annotations automatically for the DyC dynamic compiler. Calpa combines execution frequency and value profile information with a model of dynamic compilation cost and dynamically generated code benefit to choose run-time constants and other dynamic compilation strategies. For the programs tested so far, Calpa generates annotations of the same or better quality as those found by a human, but in a fraction of the time. The result was equal or better program speedups from dynamic compilation, but without the need for programmer intervention.